Air acoustic ranging sensor

From Glossary of Meteorology

air acoustic ranging sensor

A pulsed, acoustic ranging device to determine water levels using the air column in a tube as the acoustic sound path.

The fundamental measurement is the time it takes for the acoustic signal to travel from a transmitter to the water surface and then back to the receiver. The distance from a reference point to the water surface is derived from the travel time. A calibration point is set at a fixed distance from the acoustic transducer and is used to correct the measured distance using the calibrated sound velocity in the tube.