(Also spelled bize.) Name given to cold northerly, northeasterly, or easterly, postfrontal winds in the Swiss Middleland (the region between the Jura and the Alps) and in various regions of eastern France.
The bise is typically driven by an anticyclone
building to the northwest or north of the Alps. According to Wanner and Furger (1990), "the cold air flow from the north and northeast is channeled between the Jura and the Alps and leads to the formation of the bise over the Swiss Middleland and the upper Rhône Valley. Thus, the bise is normally a postfrontal phenomenon and is closely connected with the advection
of cold and dry continental air
. Typically the classic bise endures about one to three days." The bise is most frequent in spring, when it usually brings fine, bright weather. In winter a special case of the bise occurs when the pressure gradient
is produced by a Mediterranean cyclone
system to the south of the Alps, bringing moist air
in from the Balkans. Accompanied by heavy clouds, snow
whirlwinds in the mountains, and rain
, snow, or hail
, this wind
is called a "black bise" (bise noire in Switzerland and Saône in east central France; bise nègre in Aveyron in south central France). In spring the bise can last for several days and bring damaging frosts. In the Morvan in east central France the very dry bise in March is termed hale de mars (drying wind of March). In the Drôme Valley southeast of Valence (southeast France) the name bise brume is given to a moist, mild, and sometimes foggy wind from the northwest.
Wanner, H., and M. Furger 1990. The bise–Climatology of a regional wind north of the Alps. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.. 43. p. 107.
Copyright 2022 American Meteorological Society (AMS). For permission to reuse any portion of this work, please contact [email protected]. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be “fair use” under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 U.S. Code § 107) or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S.Copyright Act (17 USC § 108) does not require AMS’s permission. Republication, systematic reproduction, posting in electronic form, such as on a website or in a searchable database, or other uses of this material, except as exempted by the above statement, require written permission or a license from AMS. Additional details are provided in the AMS Copyright Policy statement.