From Glossary of Meteorology
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  1. Any material that, by absorption or reflection, selectively modifies the radiation transmitted through an optical system.

  2. To remove a certain component or components of radiation, usually by means of a filter, although other devices may be used.

  3. A mathematical tool used to remove information within certain frequency (
    or wavelength) limits from a time (
    or space) series of data.

    Filters are commonly used to remove high (low) frequency oscillations from a dataset when oscillations of low (high) frequency are of interest.