Difference between revisions of "Fujita scale"

From Glossary of Meteorology
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== Fujita scale ==
 
== Fujita scale ==
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<div class="definition"><div class="short_definition">(Also known as the F-scale.) Relates [[tornado]] intensity indirectly to structural and/or  vegetative damage.</div><br/> <div class="paragraph">The estimated [[wind speed]] is calculated using the following formula: V = 6.30 (F+2)<sup>1.5</sup> m s<sup>-1</sup>.  A six-point scale has been developed that corresponds to the following wind-speed estimates:  
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<div class="definition"><div class="short_definition">(Also known as the F-scale.) Relates [[tornado]] intensity indirectly to structural and/or  vegetative damage.</div><br/> <div class="paragraph">The estimated [[wind speed]] is calculated using the following formula: ''V'' = 6.30 (''F'' + 2)<sup>1.5</sup> m s<sup>&#8722;1</sup>.  A six-point scale has been developed that corresponds to the following wind speed estimates:  
:<div class="list_item">F0 (light damage): 18&ndash;32 m s<sup>-1</sup></div>  
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:<div class="list_item">F0 (light damage): 18&ndash;32 m s<sup>&#8722;1</sup></div>  
:<div class="list_item">F1 (moderate damage): 33&ndash;49 m s<sup>-1</sup></div>  
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:<div class="list_item">F1 (moderate damage): 33&ndash;49 m s<sup>&#8722;1</sup></div>  
:<div class="list_item">F2 (considerable damage): 50&ndash;69 m s<sup>-1</sup></div>  
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:<div class="list_item">F2 (considerable damage): 50&ndash;69 m s<sup>&#8722;1</sup></div>  
:<div class="list_item">F3 (severe damage): 70&ndash;92 m s<sup>-1</sup></div>  
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:<div class="list_item">F3 (severe damage): 70&ndash;92 m s<sup>&#8722;1</sup></div>  
:<div class="list_item">F4 (devastating damage): 93&ndash;116 m s<sup>-1</sup></div>  
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:<div class="list_item">F4 (devastating damage): 93&ndash;116 m s<sup>&#8722;1</sup></div>  
:<div class="list_item">F5 (incredible damage):117&ndash;142 m s<sup>-1</sup>.</div><br/>  Although extremely dependent on the design of a structure and the tree type, the following visual  characteristics of the damage have been assigned to the F-scale.  
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:<div class="list_item">F5 (incredible damage):117&ndash;142 m s<sup>&#8722;1</sup>.</div><br/>  Although extremely dependent on the design of a structure and the tree type, the following visual  characteristics of the damage have been assigned to the F-scale.  
 
:<div class="list_item">F0 - Some damage to chimneys; branches broken; shallow-rooted trees knocked over.</div>  
 
:<div class="list_item">F0 - Some damage to chimneys; branches broken; shallow-rooted trees knocked over.</div>  
 
:<div class="list_item">F1 - Surface of roofs peeled off; mobile homes pushed off foundations or overturned; moving  autos pushed off road.</div>  
 
:<div class="list_item">F1 - Surface of roofs peeled off; mobile homes pushed off foundations or overturned; moving  autos pushed off road.</div>  
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:<div class="list_item">F3 - Roofs and some walls torn off well-constructed houses; trains overturned; most trees in  forest uprooted; heavy cars lifted off ground and thrown.</div>  
 
:<div class="list_item">F3 - Roofs and some walls torn off well-constructed houses; trains overturned; most trees in  forest uprooted; heavy cars lifted off ground and thrown.</div>  
 
:<div class="list_item">F4 - Well-constructed houses leveled; structures with weak foundations blown off; large missiles  generated.</div>  
 
:<div class="list_item">F4 - Well-constructed houses leveled; structures with weak foundations blown off; large missiles  generated.</div>  
:<div class="list_item">F5 - Strong frame houses lifted off foundations and carried considerable distances; automobile-  sized missiles flying through the air for distances in excess of 100 m; trees debarked.</div><br/></div><br/> </div><div class="reference">Fujita, T. 1981. Tornadoes and downbursts in the context of generalized planetary scales. J. Atmos. Sci.. 38.  1511&ndash;1534. </div><br/>  
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:<div class="list_item">F5 - Strong frame houses lifted off foundations and carried considerable distances; automobile-  sized missiles flying through the air for distances in excess of 100 m; trees debarked.</div><br/></div><br/> </div><div class="reference">Fujita, T. 1981. Tornadoes and downbursts in the context of generalized planetary scales. ''J. Atmos. Sci.'', '''38'''.  1511&ndash;1534. </div><br/>  
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''Term edited 1 March 2021''
  
 
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Latest revision as of 05:30, 1 March 2021



Fujita scale

(Also known as the F-scale.) Relates tornado intensity indirectly to structural and/or vegetative damage.

The estimated wind speed is calculated using the following formula: V = 6.30 (F + 2)1.5 m s−1. A six-point scale has been developed that corresponds to the following wind speed estimates:
F0 (light damage): 18–32 m s−1
F1 (moderate damage): 33–49 m s−1
F2 (considerable damage): 50–69 m s−1
F3 (severe damage): 70–92 m s−1
F4 (devastating damage): 93–116 m s−1
F5 (incredible damage):117–142 m s−1.

Although extremely dependent on the design of a structure and the tree type, the following visual characteristics of the damage have been assigned to the F-scale.
F0 - Some damage to chimneys; branches broken; shallow-rooted trees knocked over.
F1 - Surface of roofs peeled off; mobile homes pushed off foundations or overturned; moving autos pushed off road.
F2 - Roofs torn off frame houses; mobile homes demolished; boxcars pushed over; large trees snapped or uprooted.
F3 - Roofs and some walls torn off well-constructed houses; trains overturned; most trees in forest uprooted; heavy cars lifted off ground and thrown.
F4 - Well-constructed houses leveled; structures with weak foundations blown off; large missiles generated.
F5 - Strong frame houses lifted off foundations and carried considerable distances; automobile- sized missiles flying through the air for distances in excess of 100 m; trees debarked.


Fujita, T. 1981. Tornadoes and downbursts in the context of generalized planetary scales. J. Atmos. Sci., 38. 1511–1534.

Term edited 1 March 2021