Geographic effect on winds

From Glossary of Meteorology

geographic effect on winds

The relationship between topography and winds.

There are two main mechanisms: 1) topographically modified flow, where existing synoptic- scale winds are modulated or redirected by the presence of mountains or terrain features; and 2) geographically generated flow, where solar heating and nocturnal cooling generate anabatic and katabatic flows and mountain and valley circulations during conditions of weak synoptic winds.