From Glossary of Meteorology
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The greatest value attained (or attainable) by a function; the opposite of minimum.

An "absolute" maximum is the greatest value within a prescribed interval, while "relative" maxima are the greatest values within arbitrary subintervals, each one of which is "absolute" within its own subinterval, and so on. In records of meteorological observations, "absolute" is with reference to the entire period of record for that station, and the "relative" values are labeled "annual," "monthly," and "daily."