Surface friction

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surface friction

Resistance to movement of air flowing along the surface of the earth or other surface such as an airplane wing.

The total drag at the surface is a combination of skin drag due to viscosity, form drag due to pressure forces created as the wind hits roughness elements, and gravity wave drag in the case of statically stable air. In the atmosphere, surface friction is related to turbulent drag.
Compare friction velocity, drag coefficient, Reynolds stress.