Bernal-fowler rules

From Glossary of Meteorology

Bernal–Fowler rules

The set of rules describing the arrangement of hydrogen atoms in an "ideal" ice crystal.

These rules are 1) Each water molecule is oriented such that its two hydrogen atoms are directed approximately toward two of the four surrounding oxygen atoms (arranged almost in a tetrahedron); 2) only one hydrogen atom is present on each O-O linkage; and 3) each oxygen atom has two nearest neighboring hydrogen atoms such that the water molecule structure is preserved. Violations of these rules lead to structural defects in ice, responsible, among other things, for its electrical conductivity and its long (10-4 s) electrical relaxation time.

Copyright 2022 American Meteorological Society (AMS). For permission to reuse any portion of this work, please contact [email protected]. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be “fair use” under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 U.S. Code § 107) or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S.Copyright Act (17 USC § 108) does not require AMS’s permission. Republication, systematic reproduction, posting in electronic form, such as on a website or in a searchable database, or other uses of this material, except as exempted by the above statement, require written permission or a license from AMS. Additional details are provided in the AMS Copyright Policy statement.