Most climate models are closely related to NWP
models. In general, the equations for the atmosphere
are those for momentum
, the equation of state
, the law of thermodynamics
, and water vapor
continuity, although simplified sets of governing equations may also be used. Depending on the climate timescale of interest, the atmospheric model
may be coupled to similar models for the ocean (including the deep ocean for timescales greater than a year), the land surface and biosphere
, land snow
, and sea ice
. For longer timescales, variation in external forcing factors (solar radiation
) may also be important. Because climate models are generally integrated for periods of many years, they have traditionally been run at lower resolution
than NWP models to reduce computational costs.
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