High arctic climate

From Glossary of Meteorology



high arctic climate

In Nordenskjöld's climatic classification (1928), the climate of those parts of the world where the average temperature of the warmest month is below 0°C.

It is equivalent, therefore, to the perpetual frost climate of W. Köppen (1918), and to C. W. Thornthwaite's frost climate (1931).
See polar climate.

Nordenskjöld, O., and L. Meeking 1928. The Geography of the Polar Regions. American Geographical Society, Special Pub. No. 8, New York.

Köppen, W. P. 1918. Klassification der Klimate nach Temperatur, Niederschlag und Jahreslauf. Petermanns Geog. Mitt.. 64. 193–203; 243–248.

Thornthwaite, C. W. 1931. The climates of North America according to a new classification. Geogr. Rev.. 21. 633–655.


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