Ice multiplication

From Glossary of Meteorology

ice multiplication

A process from which more ice particles are produced from existing ice crystals in clouds.

Sometimes known as ice enhancement. The process is inferred from the observation that ice particle concentration often exceeds that of ice nuclei, sometimes by several orders of magnitude. Currently the following mechanisms are thought to be responsible for the ice multiplication phenomenon: 1) mechanical fracturing of ice crystals during evaporation; 2) shattering or partial fragmentation of large drops during freezing; and 3) ice splinter formation during the riming of ice particles (Hallett–Mossop process).

Copyright 2022 American Meteorological Society (AMS). For permission to reuse any portion of this work, please contact Any use of material in this work that is determined to be “fair use” under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 U.S. Code § 107) or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S.Copyright Act (17 USC § 108) does not require AMS’s permission. Republication, systematic reproduction, posting in electronic form, such as on a website or in a searchable database, or other uses of this material, except as exempted by the above statement, require written permission or a license from AMS. Additional details are provided in the AMS Copyright Policy statement.