From Glossary of Meteorology
As the width is unaffected (the angular width of image width remains that of the object because the refractive index gradient is vertical), the aspect ratio is altered and distant images appear vertically enlarged. Towering often accompanies sinking—distant features appear depressed and enlarged—but it can also accompany looming.
Copyright 2022 American Meteorological Society (AMS). For permission to reuse any portion of this work, please contact email@example.com. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be “fair use” under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 U.S. Code § 107) or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S.Copyright Act (17 USC § 108) does not require AMS’s permission. Republication, systematic reproduction, posting in electronic form, such as on a website or in a searchable database, or other uses of this material, except as exempted by the above statement, require written permission or a license from AMS. Additional details are provided in the AMS Copyright Policy statement.