Absolute velocity

From Glossary of Meteorology

absolute velocity

Velocity as measured in an absolute coordinate system; hence, in meteorology, the (vector) sum of the velocity of a fluid parcel relative to the earth and the velocity of the parcel due to the earth's rotation.

The east–west component is the only one affected:
where u and ua are the relative and absolute eastward speeds, Ω the angular speed of the earth's rotation, r the radial distance of the parcel from the center of the earth, and φ the latitude of the parcel.

Copyright 2022 American Meteorological Society (AMS). For permission to reuse any portion of this work, please contact permissions@ametsoc.org. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be “fair use” under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 U.S. Code § 107) or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S.Copyright Act (17 USC § 108) does not require AMS’s permission. Republication, systematic reproduction, posting in electronic form, such as on a website or in a searchable database, or other uses of this material, except as exempted by the above statement, require written permission or a license from AMS. Additional details are provided in the AMS Copyright Policy statement.